The growth in new medical technology presents a special challenge to human rights. At the cutting edge of science, how can we adequately understand how our personal data is being used? How can we make sure we give full consent, and that information on our health is not being shared in a way that could compromise us – such as stopping us getting insurance or treatment? The Oviedo Convention on bio-medicine was a first step to protect the dignity of the human being in biology and medicine, covering genetic testing, scientific research and organ transplants. The Council of Europe was the first international organisation to propose a specific ban on human cloning as a protocol to the original text.